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Graduate Management Admission Test (GMAT)

The GMAT® Overview
The Graduate Management Admission Test® (GMAT®) is a standardized assessment—delivered in English—that helps business schools assess the qualifications of applicants for advanced study in business and management. Schools use the test as one predictor of academic performance in an MBA program or in other graduate management programs.

What the GMAT® Measures
The GMAT® exam measures basic verbal, mathematical, and analytical writing skills that you have developed over a long period of time in your education and work. It does not measure:
• your knowledge of business,
• your job skills,
• specific content in your undergraduate or first university course work,
• your abilities in any other specific subject area, or
• subjective qualities—such as motivation, creativity, and interpersonal skills.

Format and Timing
The GMAT® exam consists of three main parts, the Analytical Writing Assessment, the Quantitative section, and the Verbal section.

Analytical Writing Assessment
The GMAT® exam begins with the Analytical Writing Assessment (AWA). The AWA consists of two separate writing tasks—Analysis of an Issue and Analysis of an Argument. You are allowed 30 minutes to complete each one.

Analytical Writing Assessment Section
The Analytical Writing Assessment (AWA) of the Graduate Management Admission Test® (GMAT®) is designed as a direct measure of your ability to think critically and to communicate your ideas. The AWA consists of two 30-minute writing tasks—Analysis of an Issue and Analysis of an Argument.

The issues and arguments presented on the test concern topics of general interest related to business or a variety of other subjects. A specific knowledge of the essay topic is not necessary; only your capacity to write analytically is assessed.
Analysis of an Issue

For the Analysis of an Issue section, you will need to analyze the issue presented and explain your point of view on the subject. There is no correct answer. Instead, you should consider various perspectives. Use relevant reasons or examples drawn from your experience, observations, or reading to develop your own position on the issue.

What Is Measured
The Analysis of an Issue tests your ability to explore the complexities of an issue or opinion and, if appropriate, to take a position that is informed by your understanding.

Sample Question
For an example of this type of question and directions for answering, go to the Sample Analysis of an Issue Question.

Analysis of an Argument
For the Analysis of an Argument section, you will need to analyze the reasoning behind a given argument and write a critique of that argument. You are not being asked to present your own views on the subject.

Consider the following when developing your essay:
• what questionable assumptions underlie the thinking behind the argument?
• what alternative explanations or counterexamples might weaken the conclusion?
• What sort of evidence could help strengthen or refute the argument?

What Is Measured
The Analysis of an Argument section tests your ability to formulate an appropriate and constructive critique of a specific conclusion based on a specific line of thinking.

Quantitative Section
Following an optional ten-minute break, you begin the Quantitative Section of the GMAT® exam. This section contains 37 multiple-choice questions of two question types—Data Sufficiency and Problem Solving. You will be allowed a maximum of 75 minutes to complete the entire section.

More information on Quantitative

Quantitative Section

The Quantitative section of the Graduate Management Admission Test® (GMAT®) measures the ability to reason quantitatively, solve quantitative problems, and interpret graphic data. Two types of multiple-choice questions are used in the Quantitative section of the GMAT® exam—Problem Solving and Data Sufficiency.
Problem-Solving and Data-Sufficiency questions are intermingled throughout the section. Both types of questions require knowledge of:
• arithmetic,
• elementary algebra, and
• commonly known concepts of geometry.

Problem-Solving Questions
Problem-Solving questions are designed to test:
• basic mathematical skills,
• understanding of elementary mathematical concepts, and
• the ability to reason quantitatively and solve quantitative problems.

Data-Sufficiency Questions
Data-Sufficiency questions are designed to measure your ability to:
• analyze a quantitative problem,
• recognize which information is relevant, and
• determine at what point there is sufficient information to solve a problem.
Data-Sufficiency questions are accompanied by some initial information and two statements, labelled (1) and (2). You must decide whether the statements given offer enough data to enable you to answer the question.

You must choose one of the following answers:
• Statement (1) ALONE is sufficient, but statement (2) is not sufficient.
• Statement (2) ALONE is sufficient, but statement (1) is not sufficient.
• BOTH statements TOGETHER are sufficient, but NEITHER statement ALONE is sufficient.
• EACH statement ALONE is sufficient.
Statements (1) and (2) TOGETHER are NOT sufficient

Verbal Section
After a second optional ten-minute break, you begin the Verbal Section of the GMAT® exam. This section contains 41 multiple-choice questions of three question types—Reading Comprehension, Critical Reasoning, and Sentence Correction. You are allowed a maximum of 75 minutes to complete the entire section.
More information on Verbal (To know more click)

The Verbal section of the Graduate Management Admission Test® (GMAT®) measures your ability to:
• read and comprehend written material,
• reason and evaluate arguments, and
• correct written material to conform to standard written English.

Three types of multiple-choice questions are used in the Verbal section of the GMAT® exam—Reading Comprehension, Critical Reasoning, and Sentence Correction.

Reading Comprehension Questions
Reading Comprehension passages are up to 350 words long. Topics contain material from the social sciences, physical or biological sciences, and business-related areas (marketing, economics, human resource management, etc.)

Because the Reading Comprehension section of the GMAT® exam includes passages from several different content areas, you may be generally familiar with some of the material; however, no specific knowledge of the material is required. All questions are to be answered on the basis of what is stated or implied in the reading material.

Reading Comprehension passages are accompanied by interpretive, applied, and inferential questions.

What Is Measured
Reading Comprehension questions measure your ability to understand, analyze, and apply information and concepts presented in written form.
This section evaluates the following abilities:
• Understanding words and statements in reading passages: Questions of this type test your understanding of and ability to comprehend terms used in the passage and your understanding of the English language.
• Understanding the logical relationships between significant points and concepts in the reading passages: Questions of this type ask you to determine the strong and weak points of an argument or to evaluate the importance of arguments and ideas in a passage.
• Drawing inferences from facts and statements in the reading passages: Questions of this type ask you to consider factual statements or information and, on the basis of that information, reach a general conclusion.
Understanding and following the development of quantitative concepts as they are presented in verbal material: Questions of this type involve the interpretation of numerical data or the use of simple arithmetic to reach conclusions about material in a passage.

Critical Reasoning Questions
Critical Reasoning questions are designed to test the reasoning skills involved in making arguments, evaluating arguments, and formulating or evaluating a plan of action. Questions are based on materials from a variety of sources. No familiarity with the specific subject matter is needed.

What Is Measured
This section measures your ability to reason effectively in three areas:
• Argument construction: Questions of this type may ask you to recognize the basic structure of an argument, properly drawn conclusions, underlying assumptions, well-supported explanatory hypotheses, or parallels between structurally similar arguments.
• Argument evaluation: Questions of this type may ask you to analyze a given argument, recognize factors that would strengthen or weaken an argument, reasoning errors committed in making an argument, or aspects of the methods by which an argument proceeds.
• Formulating and evaluating a plan of action: Questions of this type may ask you to recognize the relative appropriateness, effectiveness, or efficiency of different plans of action; factors that would strengthen or weaken a proposed plan of action; or assumptions underlying a proposed plan of action.

Sentence Correction Questions
Sentence Correction questions ask you which of the five choices best expresses an idea or relationship. The questions will require you to be familiar with the stylistic conventions and grammatical rules of standard written English. You must also demonstrate your ability to improve incorrect or ineffective expressions.

What Is Measured
This section tests two broad aspects of language proficiency:
• Correct expression: A correct sentence is grammatically and structurally sound. It conforms to all the rules of standard written English, e.g., noun-verb agreement, pronoun consistency, pronoun case, and verb tense sequence. A correct sentence will not have dangling, misplaced, or improperly formed modifiers, unidiomatic or inconsistent expressions, or faults in parallel construction.
• Effective expression: An effective sentence expresses an idea or relationship clearly and concisely, as well as grammatically. This does not mean that the choice with the fewest and simplest words is necessarily the best answer. It means that there are no superfluous words or needlessly complicated expressions in the best choice. In addition, an effective sentence uses proper diction—the standard dictionary meanings of words and the appropriateness of words in context. In evaluating the diction of a sentence, you must be able to recognize whether the words are well chosen, accurate, and suitable for the context.

Computer-Adaptive Format
The Graduate Management Admission Test® (GMAT®) consists of four separately timed sections. Each of the first two sections consists of an analytical writing task; the remaining two sections (Quantitative and Verbal) consist of multiple-choice questions delivered in a computer-adaptive format. Questions in these sections are dynamically selected as you take the test; the multiple-choice questions will adjust to your ability level, and your test will be unique.

How Does It Work?
For each multiple-choice section of the GMAT® exam, there is a large pool of potential questions ranging from a low to high level of difficulty. Each section of the test starts with a question of moderate difficulty. If you answer the first question correctly, the computer will usually give you a harder question. If you answer the first question incorrectly, your next question will be easier. This process will continue until you complete the section, at which point the computer will have an accurate assessment of your ability level in that subject area.

In a computer-adaptive test, only one question at a time is presented. Because the computer scores each question before selecting the next one, you may not skip, return to, or change your responses to previous questions.

What If You Make a Mistake or Guess?
What if I don’t finish?

Pacing is critical, as there is a severe penalty for not completing. Both the time and number of questions that remain in the section are displayed on the screen during the exam. There are 37 Quantitative questions and 41 Verbal questions. If a question is too time-consuming or if you don’t know the answer, make an educated guess by first eliminating the answers you know to be wrong.

How Is Your Score Determined?
Your score is determined by: If you answer a question incorrectly by mistake or correctly by randomly guessing, your answers to subsequent questions will lead you back to questions that are at the appropriate level of difficulty for you.

Random guessing can significantly lower your scores. So, if you do not know the answer to a question, you should try to eliminate as many answer choices as possible and then select the answer you think is best. For more testing strategies, see Test-Taking Strategies.
• the number of questions you answer,
• whether you answer the questions correctly or incorrectly, and
• the level of difficulty and other statistical characteristics of each question.
The questions in an adaptive test are weighted according to their difficulty and other statistical properties, not according to their position in the test.

Are All Questions Counted?
Every test contains trial multiple-choice questions being pretested for use in a real exam. These questions are not identified and appear in different locations within the test. You should, therefore, do your best on all questions. Answers to trial questions are not counted in the scoring of your test.

What Computer Skills Do You Need?
You need only minimal computer skills to complete the GMAT® exam. Familiarize yourself with the mechanics of taking a computer-adaptive test by using the GMAT® Tutorials that is included with the Free GMAT® POWERPREP® Software. The tutorials cover such topics as:
• using a mouse
• entering responses
• moving on to the next question
• using the word processor
• accessing the Help function
Before the day of your test, review the testing tools covered in the tutorials. Although you will be able to use a Help function during the test, the time spent doing so will count against the time allotted for completing a test section.

Who administers the GMAT?

The GMAT is developed and administered by the US-based "Educational Testing Service" (ETS) under the direction of the Graduate Management Admission Council (GMAC), a non-profit organization of graduate business schools worldwide.

When is the GMAT held?
All-round-the-year. Unlike other exams, you can choose your own date and time for taking the GMAT! The test is administered in the above cities five-days-a-week (Monday through Friday), twice a day. September to December is the high season for GMAT, so in case you intend to take the test during this period, you need to register very early (say 90 days in advance) to get a date of your choice. Otherwise, registering at least 15 days in advance is mandatory.

Eligibility and validity
Anyone and everyone are eligible for taking the GMAT - there are no restrictions based on age or qualifications. The test scores are valid for five years, i.e., most universities accept scores up to five years old.

What is a Computer-Adaptive Test?
In a computer-adaptive test, the computer screen displays one question at a time, which is chosen from a very large pool of questions categorized by content and difficulty. The first question is always of a medium difficulty, and each subsequent question is determined by your responses to all the previous questions. In other words, the CAT adjusts itself to your ability level - you’ll get few questions that are either too easy or too difficult for you.

Each question in the GMAT CAT has five answer options, and you are required to select one of these five as the correct answer by clicking on it. A subsequent question is displayed on the screen only after you have answered the previous question, so you cannot skip a question. You cannot also go back to a previously answered question to change your answer. Thus, if you guess a correct answer or answer a question incorrectly by mistake, your answers to subsequent questions will lead you back to questions that are at the appropriate level of difficulty for you.

The following table gives out the format of the GMAT-CAT:
Questions Timing
Computer Tutorial NA NA
Analysis of an Issue
Analysis of an Argument 1 Topic
1 Topic 30 min.
30 min.
Optional Rest Break NA 5 min.
Quantitative (Problem Solving & Data Sufficiency) 37 75 min.
Optional Rest Break NA 5 min.
Verbal (Reading Comprehension, Critical Reasoning, & Sentence Correction)
41 75 min.
78+2 Essays> 4hrs.(approx.)
The tutorial is meant to make you feel comfortable with the infrastructure and the environment and does not have a prescribed time limit. You are expected to be through with it in 15 minutes or so: it makes sense to acclimatize yourself fully with the setting even after you think you have understood how the system works.

The Scoring Pattern in GMAT CAT
The GMAT results comprise four different scores: a total score (which is the combined verbal and quantitative scores), a separate Verbal score, a separate Quantitative score, and an Analytical Writing score. The total score is reported on a scale from 200 to 800. The Verbal and Quantitative Scores are reported on a scale of 0 to 60. For the AWA score, the scale is from 0 to 6. Note that your AWA performance is not reflected in your total GMAT score (on 800). You get to know your total, verbal, and quantitative score immediately after taking the test. Official GMAT score reports, which include the AWA scores, are mailed approximately two weeks after you take the test and take another ten days or so to reach your address.

In addition to these scores, the score report also contains percents (%) below. These "% below" indicate the percentage of examinees that scored below you based on the scores of the entire GMAT testing population for the most recent three-year period. These percentages are important in considering how an applicant for admission to a particular management school compares with everyone in the specified period, with all other applicants to the same school, and with students already enrolled at the school.

Retaking the GMAT
Even though an "I could have done better" feeling is inevitable after any test, taking the GMAT again may not be helpful. Sometimes it is necessary to take the GMAT more than once, like when a management school asks you for more recent scores than what you have. However, unless your scores seem unusually low compared to your performance in the practice tests, or if you have not been able to perform well because of a sudden illness or similar exceptional circumstances, it’s advisable not to succumb to the temptation of repeating the test. This is because, given the nature of the test, it is unlikely that your scores can substantially improve.

If you repeat the test, your scores from the latest test date and the two most recent test administrations in the last five years will be reported to the institutions you designate as recipients. In any case, you cannot take the test more than once in the same calendar month, even if you have taken the test and cancelled your scores.

GMAT Test Registration
The Graduate Management Admission Test® (GMAT®) is held in over 100 countries. The fee for the GMAT is U.S. $250 worldwide.
The preferred forms of payment are:
• credit card (Visa, MasterCard, or American Express)
• money order/certified check
• U.S. Postal Money Order
• international money order
• UNESCO coupons
• checks payable in certain currencies

Register for the GMAT:
You can register in four ways:
Online Registration: You can now check online for available slots and register online using a credit card. This is available for registration in the United States, U.S. Territories, Puerto Rico, Canada and major international cities. Use the links below for more details.

Registering by Phone: You may call up Prometric center until 12:00 noon to register. Make sure to call at least THREE BUSINESS DAYS before the test date. Use the links below for more details.

Registering by Fax: If registering by fax, you must ideally send your fax at lest SEVEN DAYS prior to your first choice of a test day. Use the links below for more details.

For further information please call us on 0092 (52) 4264120 or by email at info@asiapacificlawyers.net